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程序员的笔记

Nginx的SSL配置A+级别

测试地址:https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/

nginx 配置,只贴出 SSL 相关,需要将配置放到 server {} 位置。

首先开启 ssl
listen 443 ssl;
server_name www.example.com;
ssl on;
ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-bundle.crt;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/private/www_example_com.key;

其中 ssl-bundle.crt 是网站证书,www_example_com.key 是证书私钥,如何获取这两个文件,请自行搜索。

需要注意的是,大部分 CA 提供的证书都是多级,所以可能需要我们把多个证书合并成一个,这样可以减少浏览器额外下载中间证书的次数。

生成 dhparam.pem 

openssl dhparam -out dhparam.pem 4096

配置到 nginx

ssl_dhparam /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem;

协议和 ciphers 选择,ciphers 的选择比较关键,这个配置中的 ciphers 支持大多数浏览器,但不支持 XP/IE6 。

ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
ssl_stapling on;
ssl_ciphers "ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA:AES128-GCM-SHA256:AES256-GCM-SHA384:AES128-SHA256:AES256-SHA256:AES128-SHA:AES256-SHA:AES:CAMELLIA:DES-CBC3-SHA:!aNULL:!eNULL:!EXPORT:!DES:!RC4:!MD5:!PSK:!aECDH:!EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA:!EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:!KRB5-DES-CBC3-SHA";
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

ssl session 配置

ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:10m;
ssl_session_timeout 10m;

HSTS 配置,这个对评分影响也比较大,但如果开启这个,需要全站开启 HTTPS 。

add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=63072000; includeSubdomains; preload";

完整配置文件

server {
        listen 443 ssl;
        server_name www.example.com;
        ssl on;
        ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-bundle.crt;
        ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/private/www_example_com.key;
        ssl_dhparam /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem;
        ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:10m;
        ssl_session_timeout 10m;
        ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
        ssl_stapling on;
        ssl_ciphers "ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA:AES128-GCM-SHA256:AES256-GCM-SHA384:AES128-SHA256:AES256-SHA256:AES128-SHA:AES256-SHA:AES:CAMELLIA:DES-CBC3-SHA:!aNULL:!eNULL:!EXPORT:!DES:!RC4:!MD5:!PSK:!aECDH:!EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA:!EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:!KRB5-DES-CBC3-SHA";
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
        add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=63072000; includeSubdomains; preload";
        location / {
                # pass
        }
}

更新:

请移步 Mozilla SSL Configuration Generator

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